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Document begins: Chapter 9 TRADE APPLICATIONS Earlier approaches to trade assessment, such as that used by the OECD (1994), addressed only economic and environmental aspects in the analysis. More recent methodologies continue to adopt this narrow view, eg the "Environmental Review" (proposed in the USA by the Executive Order 13141, 1999) and "Environmental Assessment" (proposed in Canada by the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program, 1999). They analyse only economic and environmental aspects make no reference to social issues. A similar approach is also used by Norway. 9.1 The UNEP framework Widening the scope from conventional environmental assessments of trade policies and agreements, UNEP has developed a manual for the "integrated assessment of trade -related policies" (UNEP 2001) comprising economic, environmental and social impacts or the "linkages between trade, the environment and development" (Box 9.1). UNEP commissioned numerous sectoral country case studies, and Oxfam and WWF have also commissioned case studies about the environmental and social effects of trade measures. Furthermore, WWF proposed elements of a methodology for sustainability assessment ­ though originally named "environmental assessment" ­ of trade agreements (Perrin 1999; WWF 1998; WWF 1999). WWF defines sustainability assessment as a "tool which aims ...

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