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Document begins: Chapter 14 DONOR APPROACHES Gibson (2002) notes that "bilateral and multilateral development aid agencies have been moving along various paths towards sustainability assessment. Environmental assessment in some form is commonly applied in the project planning and/or approval process and is increasingly applied at the programme level. Sustainability as a now a nearly universal official objective of development efforts is evident in leading local development practice (e.g. in the application of sustainable livelihoods approaches) as well as in policy guidance. Links between assessment and sustainability are also apparent at least in the official policies of many agencies, though these links are often fragmentary and generally not well developed. The most common deficiencies are narrow approaches to both environmental assessment and sustainability, and limited integration of the two. Many environmental assessment processes focus only or chiefly on biophysical considerations (rather than the full suite of social, economic, cultural and ecological factors and interrelationships), and are applied as mere evaluation tools rather than as an integral part of the conception, planning, design and implementation process. Similarly, sustainability commitments are often treated as a limited obligation to ensure consideration of long term environmental effects (environmental sustainability), or as a requirement to examine ...

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