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Document begins: CONCLUDING REMARKS The closing words of this volume are written while its authors are scattered in var- ious continents attempting to do, in practice, what this volume has advocated and described. From the variety of our experiences, a few points seem evident to us: The wonderful and arresting complexity of each real-life context makes each "co-management case" unique and requires, each time, unique study and care. An appreciation of this complexity, a grounding in history and the expe- rience of local communities, and a basic awareness of the relevant biological diversity and ecosystem functions are the necessary starting point for anything that hopes to be effective. On the basis of this appreciation and understanding, the most important ingre- dients to get co-management moving are humane qualities rather than intel- lectual qualities or technical proficiencies: a positive attitude, good will, curiosity, attention, care, honesty, appreciation, respect, patience. even humbleness, but also conviviality, perseverance, determination and, more often than not, courage. It is only by building upon these qualities that people can effectively respect and recognise each other`s arguments and entitlements, listen, think and organise together, and take new and effective action. A further crucial ingredient is the concrete ability ...

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