Environmental Product Measures: Trade barriers for South-North trade?
An increasing volume of trade from developing countries is subject to environmental product measures upon entry into developed country markets. The frequency of incidence of these measures, the coverage in value terms and the impacts of these trade-related environmental measures on the market access for exporters from developing countries are the subjects of this paper. In order to assess the extent and coverage of such environmental measures two indices are developed - the Frequency Index of Environmental Measures (FIEM) and the Coverage Index of Environmental Measures (CIEM) and applied to developing countries' exports to the EU market in 1992. In order to assess the impacts of environmental measures on the market access of products from developing countries, the result of a survey among Zimbabwean exporting firms are presented. It is concluded that FIEM and CIEM are potentially valuable monitoring tools and some recommendations for further work are made.