Artisanal and small-scale mining in Tanzania – Evidence to inform an ‘action dialogue’
Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) is increasingly important for the development of Tanzania’s economy, with an estimated one million people directly employed in ASM and many more dependent on it for their livelihood. Tanzania’s government has taken steps to improve and formalise the sector but small-scale miners still face many challenges, including difficulty in obtaining mining land and licences; inadequate support to improve skills and protection of the environment; limited access to tools and technology; and difficulty in accessing markets. In 2017 IIED, in collaboration with Tanzanian partners MTL Consulting and HakiMadini, convened a multi-stakeholder dialogue process in Tanzania to help national stakeholders to identify solutions to promote formalised, rights-based, productive ASM within a more inclusive and responsible mining sector. This report presents the findings of research carried out to inform this dialogue. The research is based on a desk study, stakeholder mapping, and stakeholder engagement using interviews, focus group discussions and site visits. Stakeholders consulted include mining communities, ASM associations, including women’s groups, service providers, civil society organisations, government agencies at regional, district and village level, media and academia. This research provides an insight into the potential and positive impacts of ASM as well as highlighting the existing challenges facing the sector. Stakeholders consulted proposed a number of solutions for overcoming ASM challenges. As a result of the national dialogue and this research, a roadmap for reform of the ASM sector in Tanzania has been drafted, and a ‘learning and leadership’ group of ASM representatives has been formed to refine and take this roadmap forward.