Planning for affordable housing during densification in Kathmandu: Lessons from four settlements
Kathmandu faces serious urban planning and housing challenges. Most development is occurring beyond the legal limits of zoning bylaws and building regulations in response to housing shortages. As settlements densify haphazardly, affordable housing options are increasing, but living conditions, services and crowding are worsening. The potential consequences for low-income residents are disastrous given the danger of an imminent earthquake. This paper examines four types of settlements in Kathmandu to understand the impacts of densification. It then presents conceptual reimaginings of these settlements to apply the lessons for planning affordable housing in densifying settlements without compromising unduly on safety and liveability.