Water resources within the Upper Orontes and Litani Basins: a balance, demand and supply analysis amid the Syrian refugees crisis
Increasing refugee populations, industrial demands and agricultural activities have exacerbated water stress in Lebanon’s Bekaa Valley. We have provided previously unavailable remotely sensed estimates of agricultural water consumption in the Upper Litani and Upper Orontes basins. We also quantified increases in domestic water demand and mapped water stress hotspots. Due to the distinction between demand, use and consumptive use, increased water demand does not have to mean water shortage. Increased consideration of this distinction is crucial for integrated water resources management planning and climate change adaptation.