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Information for G04118

Urban ARK 5: Developing risk or resilience? Effects of slum upgrading on the social contract and on social cohesion in Kibera, Nairobi

In Kibera, an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya, three major development efforts are working to improve living conditions for the residents: the Kenya Slum Upgrading Programme (KENSUP) Kibera pilot; the Nairobi Railway Relocation Action Plan (The Railway Project); and the National Youth Service (NYS)-led Kibera Slum Upgrade Initiative. This brief describes these initiatives and assesses how each has affected the social contract and social cohesion to date. Interventions such as these can reduce conflict, crime, insecurity, flood risks, and strengthen resilience in dense and complex urban environments. But to do so, they need to include processes that build the social contract (such as meaningful consultation with residents and social accountability mechanisms). They must also build bridging social capital between ethnic groups. In addition, they should adopt multi-sectoral designs and integrate different sectoral interventions so as to address multiple risks.

This brief is drawn from Mitra, S, Mulligan, J, Schilling, J, Harper, J, Vivekananda, J and Krause, L (2017) Developing Risk or Resilience? Effects of Slum Upgrading on the Social Contract and Social Cohesion in Kibera, Nairobi, Environment and Urbanization Vol. 29, No. 1 (April 2017) http://journals.sagepub.com/home/eau

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Publication information

  • IIED code: G04118
  • Published: Jan 2017 - Urban ARK
  • Area: Kenya
  • Theme: Urban
  • Source pub: Environment and Urbanization Vol. 29, No. 1
  • Language: English

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Project information

Urban Africa Risk Knowledge is an international research and capacity building programme focusing on risk reduction in sub-Saharan African cities.

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Urban Africa Risk Knowledge (Urban ARK)

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