Information for G02221
Impediments to the Implementation of the Demand-Responsive Approach (DRA) Methodology in Urban Sanitation Programmes in Zambia and South Africa
A paper presented at the Alternative Water Forum, May 1st – 2nd 2003, University of Bradford.
A new water supply and sanitation planning approach called the “demand-responsive approach” (DRA) is now becoming accepted in many developing countries. This approach is considered revolutionary and was established as part of the new consensus agreed at the Dublin Conference 1992, that water and sanitation services should be seen as economic goods. The Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) of the World Bank and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) define the DRA as ‘a methodology that allows demands of the consumers as individuals and as a community to guide key investment decisions. Such an approach supposedly establishes clear links between the kind of service and service benefits the stakeholders want and what they are willing to contribute in cash, labour, and time for the establishment and running of these services.’