Information for G00051
Climate Change And Development Consultation On Key Researchable Issues Sectoral Issues Section 2.6. Ecosystems
Document begins: CLIMATE CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT CONSULTATION ON KEY RESEARCHABLE ISSUES SECTORAL ISSUES SECTION 2.6. ECOSYSTEMS HANNAH REID AND JAMES MAYERS Saleemul Huq and Hannah Reid Climate Change Group International Institute for Environment and Development 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H 0DD, UK Tel: (+44 20) 7388 2117 Fax: (+44 20) 7388 2826 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Climate Change and Ecosystems Links between climate change and ecosystem changes and biodiversity are firmly established. Observed climate change, especially warmer regional temperatures, has already affected biodiversity and ecosystems, causing changes in species distributions, population sizes, the timing of reproduction or migration events and an increase in the frequency of pest and disease outbreaks (Gitay et al. 2002; Kappelle et al. 1999; Parmesan and Yohe 2003; Root et al. 2003; Walther et al. 2002). Climate change is projected to increase the risk of extinction for many species (Thomas et al. 2004). The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (Reid et al. 2005) identifies climate change as one of "The most important direct drivers of change in ecosystems" and states that "By the end of the century, climate change and its impacts may be the dominant direct driver of biodiversity loss and changes in ecosystem services globally." Different ecosystems ...