This publication is an attempt to extract and synthesize some of the key issues surrounding ICDPs, their design and implementation, from existing literature. First introduced in the mid-1980s by the World Wide Fund for Nature, Integrated Conservation and Development Projects (ICDPs) are most often defined as biodiversity conservation projects with rural development components. Initially viewed as a ‘radical divergence’ from strict preservationist approaches to wildlife and protected areas management, ICDPs have tried to become more in tune with sustainable rural development needs. Nowadays, many ICDPs are mainly distinguishable by their location - usually near a protected area or sensitive or threatened ecosystem. Over the years, however, the ICDP concept has faced many difficult challenges.
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