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Delivery models for decentralised rural electrification: case studies in Nepal, Peru and Kenya

Annabel Yadoo


Access to affordable, reliable and clean energy is fundamental for poverty reduction and sustainable development; without it, the Millennium Development Goals cannot be achieved. Electrification, along with access to modern cooking fuels and mechanical power, is a catalyst for improvements in the fields of poverty reduction, food security, health, education and gender equality. Nevertheless, 1.3 billion people still lack access to electricity, of which over 95 percent live in sub-Saharan Africa or developing Asia and 84 percent are in rural areas.

The report analyses the impact of delivery models on the creation of sustainable welfare benefits. Three case studies are selected, comprising one renewable energy mini-grid project or programme from Nepal, Peru and Kenya. Although rural electrification poses a great challenge to all three countries their different physical, institutional, economic and socio-cultural contexts have led to different approaches to rural electrification.

The majority of the report’s conclusions are not country specific, despite the deliberate selection of case studies from three continents to reflect different physical, institutional, economic and socio-cultural domains. The enabling environments in the three countries vary considerably, impacting upon the types of projects encountered, their sustainability and potential to be scaled-up and replicated. The report presents core recommendations for the benefit of practitioners and institutions involved in the provision and implementation of rural electrification projects in developing countries.

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Publication information

  • IIED code: 16032IIED
  • Published: Jun 2012 - IIED
  • Area: Kenya, Nepal, Peru
  • Theme: Energy
  • ISBN: 978-1-84369-868-5
  • Language: English

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Yadoo, A., 2012. Delivery models for decentralised rural electrification: case studies in Nepal, Peru and Kenya. IIED, London.

Project information

One in five people around the world – 1.3 billion people – lack electricity to light their homes or run their businesses, while wealthy countries consume vast amounts of electricity every day. IIED’s energy team works to promote access to sustainable energy for the poorest communities and a more equitable consumption of energy resources. Energy access is an area of great inequity. Access to sustainable modern energy services underpins health, education and livelihoods and increases resilience to climate change – yet millions of people have no access to electricity and use dangerous and unhealthy fuels for lighting and cooking.

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Improving people’s access to sustainable energy