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Local communities: First Line of Defence against illegal wildlife trade (FLoD) Guidance for implementing the FLoD methodology

This manual provides detailed guidance for implementing the ‘Local communities: First Line of Defence against illegal wildlife trade (FLoD)’ methodology.

The FLoD methodology is designed to articulate, contrast and compare the assumptions, perceptions, and logic flows of communities and project designers/implementers that are engaging in projects to combat illegal wildlife trade (IWT). It is a multi-stakeholder action research approach designed for use by an independent team working with communities, local stakeholders and project designers or implementers (whether these are NGOs, government, community-based organisations or donors).

It provides an adaptive approach to help build community engagement in anti-IWT initiatives, through a deep interrogation of the logic of designers, implementers and communities, as well as their motivations and assumptions. The methodology aims to provide information to help better align interventions and strengthen community participation.

Digital versions of the individual tools shown in Annex 1 can be downloaded at: www.iucn.org/flod

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Skinner, D, Dublin, H, Niskanen, L, Roe, D and Vishwanath, A (2018) Local communities: First Line of Defence against illegal wildlife trade (FLoD). Guidance for implementing the FLoD methodology. IIED, London and IUCN, Gland.
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The First Line of Defence (FLoD) initiative uses a theory of change approach to explore the design logic of programmes intended to engage communities in tackling the illegal wildlife trade (IWT). It compares and contrasts the logic and assumptions of the designers and implementers of such initiatives with that of the communities at which they are targeted, with a view to improving project design and therefore effectiveness in tackling IWT.

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First Line of Defence (FLoD)

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